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22st Annual OLC International Conference
November 16-18, 2016 | Orlando, Florida | Walt Disney World Swan/Dolphin Resort

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Promoting Learner-Centered Teaching Through Instructional Design

Piti Golf Kanjanapongpaisal (Florida State College at Jacksonville, USA)
Poonwilas Amarasing (FSCJ, USA)
Kit Inpornvijit (FSCJ, USA)
Chrystal Wickline (FSCJ, USA)
Session Information
October 15, 2015 - 10:15am
Learning Effectiveness
Major Emphasis of Presentation: 
Practical Application
Major Emphasis of Presentation: 
Theory/Conceptual Framework
Institutional Level: 
Multiple Levels
Audience Level: 
Session Type: 
Information Session
Northern Hemisphere A3
Session Duration: 
45 Minutes
Concurrent Session 6

This presentation will demonstrate how to develop a lesson plan using learner-centered instructional strategies and the application of instructional design principles.

Extended Abstract

This presentation is designed around the principles of instructional design. It focuses on the learning rather than the teaching process. The facilitators will demonstrate how the target goals and desired learning outcomes guide the design and selection of learning activities. The implications of learning theories and instructional strategies will be discussed. By the end of the presentation, participants will be able to apply instructional strategies to design an effective lesson plan that promotes a learner-centered teaching approach.

Principles of Instructional Design
An instructor's role includes many different tasks, such as designing a lesson plan, selecting instructional materials, managing class time, monitoring learners' learning performance, serving as a content resource, and facilitating learning. Instruction is a set of events embedded in purposeful activities that facilitate the learning process. The purpose of instruction is to help people learn (Gagne, Golas, Wager, & Keller, 2005). It is natural to think about instruction in terms of the performance of a teacher in front of a class. Teaching is only one part of the instructional process. A paradigm shift from teacher-centered to learner-centered instruction requires instructors to go beyond information transmission. Instructors should be able to identify learners' needs, develop well-grounded learning objectives, apply a variety of instructional strategies to improve the learning process, and help learners transfer the learned knowledge and skills to the real world.
Instructional design is the art and science of creating effective, efficient, and appealing instruction. Applying instructional design principles can help an instructor to have a broader vision of what it takes to help students learn. This presentation will discuss basic assumptions about instructional design, and different instructional design models and processes.

Implications of Learning Theories
A considerable number of learning theories gathered from research studies on human learning can be applied to the design of lesson plans and learning activities. In order to help participants develop appropriate teaching strategies, it is crucial to understand basic human learning theories. The main learning theories, Behaviorism, Cognitivism, and Constructivism, and their implications, will be discussed in this presentation.
Through behaviors, learners exhibit external actions, such as facial and body gestures, which can help gauge whether the learner comprehends a particular topic. In contrast, Cognitivism focuses on the cognitive actions of a learner, which is internal and harder to discern the learner's true comprehension. According to Constructivist theory, learners share their experiences with others thereby deepening their cognitive retention (Ertmer & Newby, 1993).
In addition to these three main learning theories, the presentation will discuss social activism, social cognitive, scaffolding, and discovering learning theories. The implications and examples for each learning theory for promoting learner-centered activities in a class will be provided.
Instructional Strategies for Lesson Plan Development
A lesson plan is a set of specifications about what learning activities will happen during the instructional period, including out-of-class activities, what the instructor will do, and what the learners will do. The lesson implies a starting point and an ending point for instruction. Learning activities are specific events or processes in which the learners engage in active responding during the class (Gagne, Golas, Wager, & Keller, 2005).
This presentation will focus on the design of a lesson plan using the nine events of instruction (Gagne, 1968, 1985) and the application of the motivation model (Keller, 1987, 1999). When the instructors purposefully arrange the instructional events to facilitate the learning process, these external events are presented in the form of learning strategies to activate learners' internal information processing. The nine instructional events include: 1) gaining attention; 2) informing the learner of the objective; 3) stimulating recall of prerequisite learned capabilities; 4) presenting the stimulus material; 5) providing learning guidance; 6) eliciting performance; 7) providing feedback about performance correctness; 8) assessing the performance; and 9) enhancing retention and transfer (Gagne, 1968, 1985). This presentation will demonstrate how these events of instruction could be designed to deliver a unit or lesson.
When designing a lesson plan, learner motivation should be taken into consideration. Motivation drives learners to engage in the learning process and focus their attention on a particular learning goal (Gagne, Golas, Wager, & Keller, 2005). Keller (1987, 1999) has developed a model of motivational design called ARCS, an acronym for attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction. It is important to integrate motivation within a lesson, allowing learners to develop the intensity of effort necessary in order to learn the required knowledge and skills. This presentation will provide specific examples of how ARCS can be adopted for lesson plan development along with the application of the nine events of instruction.

Presentation Interactions

Lead Presenter

More than ten years of higher education experience specializing in the analysis, design, development, and evaluation of training programs for government agencies, corporate organizations, and higher education institutions. Remains on the cutting edge of emerging technologies, implementing pedagogy and instructional design theories to improve training, teaching, and learning processes.